BRS Anatomy (Board review series) 8th Latest edition free PDF Book Download







This revised seventh edition of the BRS Anatomy prepares students for first-year anatomy courses and the USMLE Step 1. Written in the popular Board Review Series outline format, this text presents the essentials of human anatomy in the form of concise descriptions and full-color illustrations. USMLE-style questions at the end of each chapter emphasize board-relevant information and allow for self-testing to confirm strengths and uncover areas of weakness. The 100 question comprehensive exam at the end of the book is a great prep tool for the actual exam!

You will also discover:

NEW! Full-color design, illustrations, and tables summarize information for convenient review
Over 550 USMLE-style questions, answers, and rationales both electronically and in print to reinforce your anatomy review
Clinical correlations to emphasize connections between anatomical knowledge and clinical medicine
End-of-chapter summaries which provide a quick review of key concepts
A companion website offers the eBook, image bank, and an interactive question bank with all the questions from the book for engaging, effective test preparation!

Description of the Book

BRS Anatomy (Board review series) requires no authentication in explaining the amount of success it can provide for students taking their exams in the shortest of times. 86 out of 100 students said this version is the best book to study for exams if you want to have a review or are too late to pass using any long book. The BRS Anatomy series has been specifically designed for students to Ace their exams within the last week or even days if they have already covered their course. You can take a look at all the latest editions of the BRS series at allthingsmedicine.com

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION 1

Skeletal System 1

I. Bones 1
II. Joints 2

Muscular System 4
I. Muscle 4
II. Structures Associated with Muscles 4

Nervous System 5
I. Nervous System 5
II. Neurons 5
III. Central Nervous System 6
IV. Peripheral Nervous System 7
V. Autonomic Nervous System 9

Circulatory System 10
I. Vascular System 10
II. Lymphatic System 12

Organ Systems 12
I. Digestive System 12
II. Respiratory System 13
III. Urinary System 13
IV. Reproductive System 13
V. Endocrine System 14
VI. Integumentary 14
High-Yield Topics 14
Review Test 17

2. BACK 21

Vertebral Column 21
I. General Characteristics 21
II. Typical Vertebra 23
III. Intervertebral Disks 25
Contents
Contents xi
IV. Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae 26
V. Ligaments of the Vertebral Column 28
VI. Vertebral Venous System 29
Soft Tissues of the Back 30
I. Superficial Tissues 30
II. Deep Tissues 32
III. Suboccipital Area 33
Spinal Cord and Associated Structures 34
I. Spinal Cord 34
II. Spinal Nerves 36
III. Meninges 36
IV. Structures Associated with the Spinal Cord 37
V. Dermatome, Myotome, and Sclerotome 38
VI. Development of Back Structures 39
High-Yield Topics 40
Review Test 43

3. THORAX 50

Thoracic Wall 50
I. Skeleton of the Thorax 50
II. Articulations of the Thorax 52
III. Breasts and Mammary Glands 53
IV. Muscles of the Thoracic Wall 53
V. Nerves and Blood Vessels of the Thoracic Wall 53
VI. Lymphatic Drainage of the Thorax 54
VII. Thymus 54
VIII. Diaphragm and Its Openings 55
Mediastinum, Pleura, and Organs of Respiration 55
I. Mediastinum 55
II. Trachea and Bronchi 56
III. Pleurae and Pleural Cavities 58
IV. Lungs 60
V. Respiration 62
VI. Lymphatic Vessels of the Lung 62
VII. Blood Vessels of the Lung 63
VIII. Nerve Supply to the Lung 65
IX. Development of the Respiratory System 65
Pericardium and Heart 66
I. Pericardium 66
II. Heart 67
III. Great Vessels 76
IV. Development of the Heart 76
V. Development of the Arterial System 79
VI. Development of the Venous System 79
VII. Fetal Circulation 80
Structures in the Posterior Mediastinum 81
I. Esophagus 81
II. Blood Vessels and Lymphatic Vessels 82
xii Contents
III. Autonomic Nervous System in the Thorax 84
High-Yield Topics 87
Review Test 93

4. ABDOMEN 104

Anterior Abdominal Wall 104
I. Abdomen 104
II. Muscles of the Anterior Abdominal Wall 105
III. Fasciae and Ligaments of the Anterior Abdominal Wall 106
IV. Inguinal Region 108
V. Spermatic Cord, Scrotum, and Testis 109
VI. Inner Surface of the Anterior Abdominal Wall 110
VII. Nerves of the Anterior Abdominal Wall 111
VIII. Lymphatic Drainage of the Anterior Abdominal Wall 112
IX. Blood Vessels of the Anterior Abdominal Wall 112
Peritoneum and Peritoneal Cavity 113
I. Peritoneum 113
II. Peritoneal Reflections 113
III. Peritoneal Cavity 115
Gastrointestinal (GI) Viscera 116
I. Esophagus (Abdominal Portion) 116
II. Stomach 116
III. Small Intestine 119
IV. Large Intestine 120
V. Accessory Organs of the Digestive System 121
VI. Spleen 126
VII. Development of Digestive System 127
VIII. Celiac and Mesenteric Arteries 129
IX. Hepatic Portal Venous System 132
Retroperitoneal Viscera, Diaphragm, and Posterior Abdominal Wall 134
I. Kidney, Ureter, and Suprarenal Gland 134
II. Development of Kidney, Urinary Bladder, and Suprarenal Gland 137
III. Posterior Abdominal Blood Vessels and Lymphatics 138
IV. Nerves of the Posterior Abdominal Wall 139
V. The Diaphragm and Its Openings 142
VI. Muscles of the Posterior Abdominal Wall 144
High-Yield Topics 144
Review Test 151

5. PERINEUM AND PELVIS 164

Perineal Region 164
I. Perineum 164
II. Urogenital Triangle 164
III. Anal Triangle 168
IV. External Genitalia and Associated Structures 169
V. Nerve Supply of the Perineal Region 172
VI. Blood Supply of the Perineal Region 173
Contents xiii
Pelvis 175
I. Bony Pelvis 175
II. Joints of the Pelvis 177
III. Pelvic Diaphragm 178
IV. Ligaments or Folds and Pouches of the Pelvis 178
V. Ureter and Urinary Bladder 180
VI. Male Genital Organs 184
VII. Female Genital Organs 187
VIII. Rectum and Anal Canal 190
IX. Blood Vessels of the Pelvis 192
X. Nerve Supply to the Pelvis 195
XI. Development of the Lower Gastrointestinal Tract
and Urinary Organs 196
XII. Development of the Reproductive System 198
High-Yield Topics 198
Review Test 204

6. LOWER LIMB 217

Bones of the Lower Limb 217
I. Hip (Coxal) Bone 217
II. Bones of the Thigh and Leg 219
III. Bones of the Ankle and Foot 221
Joints and Ligaments of the Lower Limb 223
I. Hip (Coxal) Joint 223
II. Knee Joint 225
III. Tibiofibular Joints 229
IV. Ankle (Talocrural) Joint 229
V. Tarsal Joints 230
Cutaneous Nerves, Superficial Veins, and Lymphatics 231
I. Cutaneous Nerves of the Lower Limb 231
II. Superficial Veins of the Lower Limb 232
III. Lymphatics of the Lower Limb 233
Muscles of the Lower Limb 234
I. Muscles of the Gluteal Region 234
II. Posterior Muscles of the Thigh 235
III. Muscles of the Anterior and Medial Thigh 236
IV. Anterior and Lateral Muscles of the Leg 238
V. Posterior Muscles of the Leg 239
VI. Muscles of the Foot 239
Nerves of the Lower Limb 243
I. Branches of the Lumbar and Sacral Plexuses 243
Blood Vessels of the Lower Limb 247
I. Arteries of the Lower Limb 247
II. Deep Veins of the Lower Limb 251
III. Development of the Lower Limb 252
High-Yield Topics 252
Summary 256
Review Test 258
xiv Contents

7. UPPER LIMB 273

Bones and Joints of the Upper Limb 273
I. Bones of the Shoulder Girdle 273
II. Bones of the Arm and Forearm 275
III. Bones of the Hand 278
IV. Joints and Ligaments of the Upper Limb 278
Cutaneous Nerves, Superficial Veins, and Lymphatics 282
I. Cutaneous Nerves of the Upper Limb 282
II. Superficial Veins of the Upper Limb 283
III. Superficial Lymphatics of the Upper Limb 284
Axilla and Breast 284
I. Fasciae of the Axilla and Pectoral Regions 284
II. Axilla (Armpit) 285
III. Breast and Mammary Gland 286
Muscles of the Upper Limb 291
I. Muscles of the Pectoral Region and Axilla 291
II. Muscles of the Shoulder Region 292
III. Muscles of the Arm and Forearm 294
IV. Muscles of the Hand 296
Nerves of the Upper Limb 302
I. Brachial Plexus 302
II. Nerves of the Arm, Forearm, and Hand 304
III. Functional Components of the Peripheral Nerves 307
Blood Vessels of the Upper Limb 308
I. Branches of the Subclavian Artery 308
II. Axillary Artery 308
III. Brachial Artery 309
IV. Radial Artery 310
V. Ulnar Artery 311
VI. Veins of the Upper Limb 313
VII. Development of the Limbs 313
High-Yield Topics 314
Summary 317
Review Test 319

8. HEAD AND NECK 337

Structures of the Neck 337
I. Major Divisions and Bones 337
II. Muscles 339
III. Nerves 340
IV. Blood Vessels 342
V. Lymphatics 347
Deep Neck and Prevertebral Region 348
I. Deep Structures of the Neck 348
II. Deep Cervical Fasciae 351
III. Prevertebral or Deep Neck Muscles 352
IV. Development of Thyroid and Parathyroid Gland 352
Contents xv
Face and Scalp 353
I. Muscles of Facial Expression 353
II. Nerve Supply to the Face and Scalp 353
III. Blood Vessels of the Face and Scalp 357
IV. Scalp 359
Temporal and Infratemporal Fossae 360
I. Introduction 360
II. Muscles of Mastication 362
III. Nerves of the Infratemporal Region 362
IV. Blood Vessels of the Infratemporal Region 364
V. Parotid Gland 365
VI. Joints and Ligaments of the Infratemporal Region 366
Skull and Cranial Cavity 367
I. Skull 367
II. Bones of the Cranium 368
III. Sutures of the Skull 369
IV. Foramina in the Skull 370
V. Structures in the Cranial Fossae 372
VI. Meninges of the Brain 373
VII. Cranial Venous Channels 375
VIII. Blood Supply of the Brain 377
IX. Development of the Skull 378
Nerves of the Head and Neck 379
I. Cranial and Autonomic Nerves 379
II. Autonomic Nerves 379
Orbit 379
I. Bony Orbit 379
II. Nerves 381
III. Blood Vessels 383
IV. Muscles of Eye Movement 385
V. Lacrimal Apparatus 387
VI. Eyeball 388
VII. Development of the Eye 390
Oral Cavity and Palate 391
I. Oral Cavity 391
II. Palate 392
III. Tongue 393
IV. Teeth and Gums or Gingivae 394
V. Salivary Glands 396
VI. Development of the Palate 397
VII. Development of the Tongue 397
VIII. Development of Teeth 398
IX. Development of Salivary Glands 398
Pharynx and Tonsils 398
I. Pharynx 398
II. Subdivisions of the Pharynx 399
III. Innervation and Blood Supply of the Pharynx 399
IV. Muscles of the Pharynx 400
V. Swallowing (Deglutition) 401
VI. Tonsils 402
VII. Fascia and Space of the Pharynx 403
VIII. Pharyngeal (Branchial) Apparatus 403
xvi Contents
Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses 404
I. Nasal Cavity 404
II. Subdivisions and Mucous Membranes 406
III. Blood Supply to the Nasal Cavity 406
IV. Nerve Supply to the Nasal Cavity 407
V. Paranasal Sinuses 407
VI. Development of the Nasal Cavity 409
Pterygopalatine Fossa 409
I. Boundaries and Openings 409
II. Contents 410
Larynx 411
I. Introduction 411
II. Cartilages 411
III. Ligaments of the Larynx 413
IV. Cavities and Folds 413
V. Muscles 414
VI. Innervation 414
VII. Development of the Larynx 416
Ear 417
I. External Ear 417
II. Middle Ear 418
III. Inner Ear 421
IV. Hearing and Equilibrium 422
V. Development of the Ear 423
High-Yield Topics 423
Review Test 435

9. CRANIAL AND AUTONOMIC NERVES 451

I. Cranial Nerves 451
II. Autonomic Nerves of the Head 464
High-Yield Topics 468
Review Test 471
Comprehensive Examination 477
Index 498

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