BRS Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Genetics Latest edition PDF Download







This revised edition of the BRS Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Genetics prepares students for both courses and the USMLE Step 1. Written in the popular Board Review Series outline format, this text presents the essentials of human Biochemistry in the form of concise descriptions and full-color illustrations. USMLE-style questions at the end of each chapter emphasize board-relevant information and allow for self-testing to confirm strengths and uncover areas of weakness. The 100 question comprehensive exam at the end of the book is a great prep tool for the actual exam!

You will also discover:

NEW! Full-color design, illustrations, and tables summarize information for convenient review
Over 550 USMLE-style questions, answers, and rationales both electronically and in print to reinforce your anatomy review
Clinical correlations to emphasize connections between anatomical knowledge and clinical medicine
End-of-chapter summaries which provide a quick review of key concepts
A companion website offers the eBook, image bank, and an interactive question bank with all the questions from the book for engaging, effective test preparation!

Description of the Book

BRS Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Genetics (Board review series) requires no authentication in explaining the amount of success it can provide for students taking their exams in the shortest of times. 86 out of 100 students said this version is the best book to study for exams if you want to have a review or are too late to pass using any long book. The BRS Microbiology and Immunology series has been specifically designed for students to Ace their exams within the last week or even days if they have already covered their course. You can take a look at all the latest editions of the BRS series at allthingsmedicine.com

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY REVIEW 1

I. Brief Review of Organic Chemistry 1
II. Acids, Bases, and Buffers 1
III. Carbohydrate Structure 4
IV. Proteoglycans, Glycoproteins, and Glycolipids 9
V. Amino Acids 11
VI. Lipids 14
VII. Membranes 16
VIII. Nucleotides 18
Review Test 19

1. PROTEIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 23

I. General Aspects of Protein Structure 23
II. Examples of Medically Important Proteins 28
Review Test 34

2. ENZYMES 38

I. General Properties of Enzymes 38
II. Dependence of Velocity on Enzyme and Substrate Concentrations,
Temperature, and pH 39
III. The Michaelis-Menten Equation 40
IV. The Lineweaver-Burk Plot 41
V. Inhibitors 41
VI. Allosteric Enzymes 43
VII. Regulation of Enzyme Activity by Post-Translational (Covalent)
Modification 44
VIII. Regulation by Protein–Protein Interactions 44
IX. Isoenzymes 45
Review Test 46

3. BIOCHEMISTRY OF DIGESTION 50

I. Digestion of Carbohydrates 50
II. Digestion of Dietary Triacylglycerol 51
III. Protein Digestion and Amino Acid Absorption 54
Review Test 57

4. GLYCOLYSIS 63

I. General Overview 63
II. Transport of Glucose into Cells 63
III. Reactions of Glycolysis 64
IV. Special Reactions in Red Blood Cells 66
V. Regulatory Enzymes of Glycolysis 66
VI. The Fate of Pyruvate 68
VII. Generation of Adenosine Triphosphate by Glycolysis 69
Review Test 72

5. THE TRICARBOXYLIC ACID CYCLE, ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN, AND OXIDATIVE METABOLISM 77

I. The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle 77
II. Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation 85
III. Reactive Oxygen Species 90
Review Test 93

6. GLYCOGEN METABOLISM 97

I. Overview of Glycogen Structure and Metabolism 97
II. Glycogen Structure 97
III. Glycogen Synthesis 97
IV. Glycogen Degradation 100
V. Lysosomal Degradation of Glycogen 101
VI. Regulation of Glycogen Degradation 102
VII. Regulation of Glycogen Synthesis 104
Review Test 105
xii Contents

7. GLUCONEOGENESIS AND THE MAINTENANCE
OF BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS 109

I. Overview 109
II. Reactions of Gluconeogenesis 109
III. Maintenance of Blood Glucose Levels 114
Review Test 119

8. MISCELLANEOUS CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM 123

I. Fructose and Galactose Metabolism 123
II. Pentose Phosphate Pathway 126
III. Proteoglycans, Glycoproteins, and Glycolipids 129
Review Test 133

9. FATTY ACID METABOLISM 137

I. Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Synthesis 137
II. Formation of Triacylglycerol Stores in Adipose Tissue 141
III. Fatty Acid Oxidation 142
IV. High Yield Comparison from Fatty Acid Synthesis and
Oxidation 146
Review Test 147

10. CHOLESTEROL METABOLISM AND BLOOD
LIPOPROTEINS 151

I. Cholesterol and Bile Salt Metabolism 151
II. Blood Lipoproteins 155
Review Test 159

11. KETONES AND OTHER LIPID DERIVATIVES 163

I. Ketone Body Synthesis and Utilization 163
II. Phospholipid and Sphingolipid Metabolism 165
III. Metabolism of the Eicosanoids 166
IV. Synthesis of the Steroid Hormones 169
Review Test 172

12. AMINO ACID METABOLISM 176

I. Addition and Removal of Amino Acid Nitrogen 176
II. Urea Cycle 177
Contents xiii
III. Synthesis and Degradation of Amino Acids 180
Review Test 187

13. PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM AMINO ACIDS 191

I. Special Products Derived from Amino Acids 191
II. Tetrahydrofolate and S-Adenosylmethionine: The One-Carbon Carriers 198
Review Test 201

14. NUCLEOTIDE AND PORPHYRIN METABOLISM 203

I. Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism 203
II. Heme Metabolism 208
Review Test 211

15. INTEGRATIVE METABOLISM AND NUTRITION 215

I. Metabolic Fuels and Dietary Requirements 215
II. Metabolism During the Fed or Absorptive State 219
III. Fasting 221
IV. Prolonged Fasting (Starvation) 224
V. Biochemical Functions of Tissues 225
Review Test 229

16. MOLECULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY 233

I. General Mechanisms of Hormone Action 233
II. Regulation of Hormone Levels 236
III. Actions of Specific Hormones 237
Review Test 247

17. DNA REPLICATION AND TRANSCRIPTION 251

I. Nucleic Acid Structure 251
II. Synthesis of DNA (Replication) 256
III. Synthesis of RNA (Transcription) 262
Review Test 267

18. RNA TRANSLATION AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS 271

I. Protein Synthesis (Translation of Messenger RNA) 271
II. Regulation of Protein Synthesis 276
Review Test 282
xiv Contents

19. GENETICS 286

I. Chromosomes 286
II. Cell Cycle 286
III. Control of the Cell Cycle 288
IV. Meiosis 289
V. Gene Dosage 292
VI. Fundamentals of Mendelian Genetics 293
VII. The Punnett Square 294
VIII. Modes of Inheritance 294
IX. Moderators of Inheritance 296
X. Hardy-Weinberg Principle 296
XI. Genetic Testing 297
Review Test 300

20. BIOCHEMISTRY OF CANCER 305

I. Oncogenes 305
II. Tumor-Suppressor Genes 307
III. Apoptosis 308
IV. Mechanism of Oncogenesis 309
V. Molecular Carcinogenesis 311
VI. DNA Repair and Carcinogenesis 313
VII. Molecular Progression of Cancer 314
VIII. Molecular Markers in Cancer Biology 315
Review Test 316

21. TECHNIQUES IN BIOCHEMISTRY,
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, AND GENETICS 319

I. Biotechnology Involving Recombinant DNA 319
II. Technology Involving Proteins 329
Review Test 332
Comprehensive Examination 336
Index 361
Contents

BRS Biochemistry

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