High-Yield Cardiology mnemonics

Hi Yield Cardiology mnemonics







         High-Yield Cardiology mnemonics

Cardiology though itself is a very interesting field of medicine and these High-Yield Cardiology mnemonics will make it even more fun for you.

Aortic regurgitation: causes 
CREAM:
Congenital
Rheumatic damage
Endocarditis
Aortic dissection/ Aortic root dilatation
Marfan’s

Aortic stenosis characteristics High-Yield 
SAD:
Syncope
Angina
Dyspnoea

Apex beat: abnormalities found on palpation, causes of impalpable 
HILT:
Heaving
Impalpable
Laterally displaced
Thrusting/ Tapping
If it is impalpable, causes are COPD:
COPD
Obesity
Pleural, Pericardial effusion
Dextrocardia

Apex beat: differential for impalpable apex beat
DOPES:
Dextrocardia
Obesity
Pericarditis/ Pericardial tamponade/ Pneumothorax
Emphysema
Sinus inversus/ Student incompetence/ Scoliosis/ Skeletal abnormalities (eg pectus excavatum)

Atrial fibrillation: causes High-Yield 
A S#!T:
Alcohol
Stenosis (mitral valve)
Hypertension
Infarction/ Ischaemia
Thyrotoxicosis

Atrial fibrillation: causes 
PIRATES:
Pulmonary: PE, COPD
Iatrogenic
Rheumatic heart: mirtral regurgitation
Atherosclerotic: MI, CAD
Thyroid: hyperthyroid
Endocarditis
Sick sinus syndrome

Hi Yield Cardiology mnemonics

Atrial fibrillation: management High-Yield 
ABCD:
Anti-coagulate
Beta-block to control rate
Cardiovert
Digoxin

Digoxin here reminded me you might want to look at some of these PHARMACOLOGY MNEMONICS too

Beck’s triad (cardiac tamponade) High-Yield 
3 D’s:
Distant heart sounds
Distended jugular veins
Decreased arterial pressure

Beta blockers: cardioselective beta blockers High-yield 
“Betablockers Acting Exclusively At Myocardium”
Cardioselective betablockers are:
Betaxolol
Acebutelol
Esmolol
Atenolol
Metoprolol

CHF: causes of exacerbation High-Yield 
FAILURE:
Forgot medication
Arrhythmia/ Anaemia
Ischemia/ Infarction/ Infection
Lifestyle: taken too much salt
Upregulation of CO: pregnancy, hyperthyroidism
Renal failure
Embolism: pulmonary




Coronary artery bypass graft: indications High-Yield 
DUST:
Depressed ventricular function
Unstable angina
Stenosis of the left main stem
Triple vessel disease

Coronary artery bypass graft: indications High-Yield
DUST:
Depressed ventricular function
Unstable angina
Stenosis of the left main stem
Triple vessel disease

Depressed ST-segment: causes High-Yield 
DEPRESSED ST:
Drooping valve (MVP)
Enlargement of LV with strain
Potassium loss (hypokalemia)
Reciprocal ST- depression (in I/W AMI)
Embolism in lungs (pulmonary embolism)
Subendocardial ischemia
Subendocardial infarct
Encephalon haemorrhage (intracranial haemorrhage)
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Shock
Toxicity of digitalis, quinidine

Depressed segments reminded me, Are you stressed about your USMLE, PLAB or any other exam? here are some more Fun mnemonics for you

https://www.allthingsmedicine.com/important-mnemonics-for-usmle-takers/

Hi Yield Cardiology mnemonics
ECG: left vs. right bundle block
“WiLLiaMMaRRoW”:
W pattern in V1-V2 and M pattern in V3-V6 is Left bundle block.
M pattern in V1-V2 and W in V3-V6 is Right bundle block.
Note: consider bundle branch blocks when QRS complex is wide.

Exercise ramp ECG: contraindications 
RAMP:
Recent MI
Aortic stenosis
MI in the last 7 days
Pulmonary hypertension

Heart compensatory mechanisms that ‘save’ organ blood flow during shock 
“Heart SAVER”:
Symphatoadrenal system
Atrial natriuretic factor
Vasopressin
Endogenous digitalis-like factor
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
In all 5, system is activated/factor is released

JVP: wave form High-Yield
ASK ME:
Atrial contraction
Systole (ventricular contraction)
Klosure (closure) of tricusps, so atrial filling
Maximal atrial filling
Emptying of atrium

MI: basic management
BOOMAR:
Bed rest
Oxygen
Opiate
Monitor
Anticoagulate
Reduce clot size

MI: signs and symptoms High-Yield
PULSE:
Persistent chest pains
Upset stomach
Lightheadedness
Shortness of breath
Excessive sweating

MI: therapeutic treatment High-Yield 
“O BATMAN!”:
Oxygen
Beta blocker
ASA
Thrombolytics (eg heparin)
Morphine
Ace prn
Nitroglycerin

MI: therapeutic treatment High-Yield
MONAH:
Morphine
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Aspirin
Heparin

MI: treatment of acute MI High-Yield 
COAG:
Cyclomorph
Oxygen
Aspirin
Glycerol trinitrate

Mitral stenosis (MS) vs. regurgitation (MR): epidemiology
MS is a female title (Ms.) and it is female predominant.
MR is a male title (Mr.) and it is male predominant.

Murmur attributes
“IL PQRST” (person has ill PQRST heart waves):
Intensity
Location
Pitch
Quality
Radiation
Shape
Timing

Murmurs: innocent murmur features High-Yield 
8 S’s:
Soft
Systolic
Short
Sounds (S1 & S2) normal
Symptomless
Special tests normal (X-ray, EKG)
Standing/ Sitting (vary with position)
Sternal depression




Murmurs: louder with inspiration vs expiration High-Yield
LEft sided murmurs louder with Expiration
RIght sided murmurs louder with Inspiration.

Murmurs: questions to ask
SCRIPT:
Site
Character (eg harsh, soft, blowing)
Radiation
Intensity
Pitch
Timing

Murmurs: right vs. left loudness 
“RILE”:
Right sided heart murmurs are louder on Inspiration.
Left sided heart murmurs are loudest on Expiration.

Murmurs: systolic vs. diastolic High-Yield 
PASS: Pulmonic & Aortic Stenosis=Systolic.
PAID: Pulmonic & Aortic Insufficiency=Diastolic.

Myocardial infarctions: treatment High-Yield
INFARCTIONS:
IV access
Narcotic analgesics (eg morphine, pethidine)
Facilities for defibrillation (DF)
Aspirin/ Anticoagulant (heparin)
Rest
Converting enzyme inhibitor
Thrombolysis
IV beta blocker
Oxygen 60%
Nitrates
Stool Softeners

Pericarditis: causes 
CARDIAC RIND:
Collagen vascular disease
Aortic aneurysm
Radiation
Drugs (such as hydralazine)
Infections
Acute renal failure
Cardiac infarction
Rheumatic fever
Injury
Neoplasms
Dressler’s syndrome

Pericarditis: EKG High-Yield
“PericarditiS”:
PR depression in precordial leads.
ST elevation.

Peripheral vascular insufficiency: inspection criteria High-Yield
SICVD:
Symmetry of leg musculature
Integrity of skin
Color of toenails
Varicose veins
Distribution of hair

Oh you must like mnemonics very much, here are some ANATOMY mnemonics for you

Pulseless electrical activity: causes High-Yield
PATCH MED:
Pulmonary embolus
Acidosis
Tension pneumothorax
Cardiac tamponade
Hypokalemia/ Hyperkalemia/ Hypoxia/ Hypothermia/ Hypovolemia
Myocardial infarction
Electrolyte derangements
Drugs




Rheumatic fever: Revised Jones’ criteria High-Yield
JONES crITERIA:
Major criteria:
Joint (arthritis)
Obvious (Cardiac)
Nodule (Rheumatic)
Erythema marginatum
Sydenham chorea
Minor criteria:
Inflammatory cells (leukocytosis)
Temperature (fever)
ESR/CRP elevated
Raised PR interval
Itself (previous Hx of Rheumatic fever)
Arthralgia

ST elevation causes in ECG High-Yield
ELEVATION:
Electrolytes
LBBB
Early repolarization
Ventricular hypertrophy
Aneurysm
Treatment (eg pericardiocentesis)
Injury (AMI, contusion)
Osborne waves (hypothermia)
Non-occlusive vasospasm

Supraventricular tachycardia: treatment High-Yield
ABCDE:
Adenosine
Beta-blocker
Calcium channel antagonist
Digoxin
Excitation (vagal stimulation)

Ventricular tachycardia: treatment High-Yield
LAMB:
Lidocaine
Amiodarone
Mexiletine/ Magnesium
Beta-blocker

Thats all about Highyield cardiology mnemonics for medical students. You can find more




cardiology mnemonics here

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